Hypertension or high blood pressure occurs when the force of blood becomes high with every heart beat and hits against the walls of the blood vessels. Heart beat causes the pumping of blood which is then transmitted through the arteries to the various parts of the body. If the blood pressure is 140/90 or above, which means if the systolic blood pressure is 140 or above and the diastolic pressure is 90 or above, it is a situation of hypertension.
Initially it does not show any symptom or sign which can be very dangerous.If hypertension remains untreated, it may lead to other health issues and organ damage like heart attack, heart failure, kidney problems, strokes, etc. According to a journal published in the American Academy of Neurology, it may cause vascular damage, decrease the volume of our brain and may later on cause cognitive failure.
Hypertension mostly occurs without showing any apparent symptom. However, the good thing isthat a few basic things like blood pressure and body weight are measured whenever we visit a physician. In other words, hypertension needs to be determined with the help of a blood pressure measuring instrument or machine. Some of the symptoms that may show in a person having hypertension can be easily confused with other medical conditions as they are not distinct.
Fatigue, insomnia, breathing problems, dizziness, blurred vision, headache and nosebleeds are the most common symptoms of hypertension. The symptoms may however vary from person to person. It does not necessarily mean that a person cannot have hypertension, if any of these signs do not show.
There are a number of factors and conditions that may cause the development of hypertension. Sedentary lifestyle, lack of physical activities and exercise, smoking, consumption of alcohol, high level of stress are the common lifestyle factors that may lead of hypertension. It may also be caused due to deficiency of some vital nutrients in the body like Vitamin D, calcium, potassium, and magnesium or due to high intake of salt. Medical conditions like obesity, aging, intake of birth control pills, diabetes, kidney diseases, adrenal and thyroid problems and some genetic factors may largely contribute to hypertension. It is very important for a person suffering from hypertension to stay away from stress and worries, which can trigger the blood pressure to shoot up.
Types Of Hypertension
It is a condition of extreme high blood pressure which can be drastic and rapid. In malignant hypertension, the blood pressure usually shoots up above 180/120. Men are more likely to develop malignant hypertension than women and may cause damage to the eyes and kidney. However, this type of hypertension is very rare.
Secondary hypertension is different from usual hypertension. It is related to the medical conditions of the heart, kidneys, arteries, endocrine system and even pregnancy. Keeping secondary hypertension under control reduces the risk of strokes and heart attacks.
The most common symptom is that the blood pressure does not come down with medication or a prolonged medicine fails to work. It is usually caused due to some underlying medical conditions like obesity, thyroidism, polycystic kidneys, diabetic nephropathy, glomerular disease, sleep apnea, etc.
The arteries which deliver blood to the kidneys may become narrower due to some diseases or disorder of the kidneys. Due to low blood flow, the kidney identifies it as low blood pressure and secretes the hormones responsible for retention of more salt and water in the body.
This increases the blood pressure which is then called renal hypertension or renovascular hypertension. There is no apparent symptom of this type of hypertension as the narrowing down of the arteries cannot be normally felt.